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6. Frequently Asked Questions

6.1 Disk Encryption

General Questions

  1. How can I encrypt swap?

    With the loop device approach, you cannot. PPDD claims you can. I don't know about (T)CFS. See the sections on individual approaches below.

Loop Device Encryption

  1. Can I use a journalling filesystem onto of /dev/loop?

    I don't know.

  2. Can I use all this as modules?

    Sure! In make menuconfig (or whatever), under ``Crypto options'', say M to ``Crypto ciphers (CONFIG_CIPHERS)'' and to the ciphers you want. Under ``Block Device'', say M to ``loopback device (CONFIG_BLK_DEV_LOOP)'' and to ``General Encryption Support (CONFIG_BLK_DEV_LOOP_GEN)''. Don't select any other encryption modules unless you can't live without them and they are no longer supported by the Crypto API.

    Build your kernel and modules, make modules_install, reboot, depmod -a.

    In /etc/conf.modules, add:

    alias loop-xfer-gen-0 loop_gen
    alias loop-xfer-gen-10 loop_gen
    alias cipher-4 blowfish            # Blowfish
    alias cipher-6 idea                # IDEA
    alias cipher-7 serp6f              # Serpent
    alias cipher-8 mars6               # MARS
    alias cipher-9 twofish             # Twofish
    alias cipher-11 rc62               # RC6
    alias cipher-15 dfc2               # DFC

  3. Why all those funny numbers?

    In short, the kernel knows ciphers only by number. If you really want to know how it works, you can grep request_module in linux/crypto/api.c and linux/drivers/block/loop.c.

    If the cipher you wish to use is not in the above list, then see the file include/linux/crypto.h in the kernel source tree. There you'll find the defines for all cipher numbers. See the directory crypto in the kernel tree for the (file)name of the module that implements the cipher.

  4. How do I change the password / the cipher?

    You can't. At least not easily. Well, you can, but you won't be able to access your data anymore. Seriously: The passphrase is hashed and then used as the encryption key. You cannot change the password and expect the hash value (ie. the encryption key) to stay the same.

    What you can do, however, is the following. Make sure, you have not currently set up or even mounted the filesystem you want to change. In the notation of section Making an Encrypted Folder you then issue:

    root# losetup -e oldcipher /dev/loop0 ~user/.crypto
    Password : (old one)
    root# losetup -e newcipher /dev/loop1 ~user/.crypto
    Password : (new one)
    root# dd if=/dev/loop0 of=/dev/loop1 bs=1k conv=notrunc
    root# losetup -d /dev/loop0
    root# losetup -d /dev/loop1
    If you changed the cipher, you will need to change the entry in /etc/fstab accordingly.

    If you plan to do this often (and maybe you should do that), it pays to write a script for it that prompts you twice for the new password. If you are really lucky, then I will have written this for you already :-).

  5. My encrypted filesystem is (nearly) full. How do I enlarge it?

    If you have enough free space left so that you can create the new-size file without having to remove the old first, then the solution is obvious:

  6. But I do not have that much free space left! Is there still hope?

    Yes: ext2resize. It is, as the name suggests, a tool that allows you to grow or shrink ext2 filesystems. And that seems to be exactly what we'll need.

    Basically, what you have to do is:

    You have now an enlarged filesystem. Note, however, that power failure or the like can easily destroy your data while resizing is running! There is a patch floating around that will let you do this with a mounted filesystem. With this solution, however, you have to unmount the filesystem before resizing.

  7. Can I encrypt my swap partition? Can I page to a swapfile that's on an encrypted filesystem?

    No, not yet. First, some issues with memory allocations in the driver have to be resolved.

  8. Cipher xyz does not work. It says ``unsupported cipher xyz'' / ``ioctl: LOOP_SET_STATUS: Invalid argument'' although I have compiled it into the kernel.

    Not for all ciphers does a user-space setup tool currently exist. Please see section Patching the util-linux source for a list of working ciphers or try them all in turn.

  9. I copied the file containing the crypto filesystem to another directory / I defragged my partitions and now I cannot access my data any more.

    Most probably you have compiled the kernel without CONFIG_BLK_LOOP_DEV_USE_REL_BLOCK. As the copy now occupies different blocks on the filesystem and you are not using relative block numbers, the ciphers get it wrong. The only thing that will help you now is the ext2recover tool by Markus Stenberg ( It will recover your data except the first four bytes of every block. If your lost data was only text files, that should be enough. If it was binary data it will most probably not be enough.

  10. I use an older 2.2 kernel. How do I avoid the above mess?

    You can use the ``double loop trick'':

    root# losetup /dev/loop0 crypto
    root# losetup -e ciphername /dev/loop1 /dev/loop0
    This will create a new block device /dev/loop0, where it is guaranteed that blocks are sequentially numbered starting with zero. That's the same as using relative block numbers on crypto directly. If you create your crypto loop device this way, you can be sure it will still work after defrag etc.

    Note that mount does currently not support this trick, so you will have to set up your loop devices by hand. All in all, you should really update to a newer kernel :-)

  11. How do I make backups?

    You can't (at least not easily) when you equal "backup" with "incremental backup". If you can sleep well with image backups instead, and if you used relative block numbers for your loop device (see questions above), you can copy your file containing the crypto filesystem to wherever you want. This includes DAT tapes and removable media, as well as CDR(W).

    You may want to use tricks like the ones presented above to change the cipher and/or passphrase to use another password for the backup file, dedicated to backups. That is because you have a better chance to remember one of the passwords if the other one gets lost. Also, if you change your password regularly, then how do you remember the password you used two months ago?

    However, if you do not use relative block numbers, then you cannot easily copy your file around for backups. You can mount the filesystem and have it backed up as plaintext or on another encrypted device. But that will undermine your encryption thoroughly. You'll have to do something along the following lines instead:

    root# losetup -e cipher /dev/loop0 ~user/.crypto
    root# losetup /dev/loop1 ~user/crypto-backup
    root# losetup -e cipher /dev/loop2 /dev/loop1
    root# dd if=/dev/loop0 of=/dev/loop2 bs=1k
    root# for i in 2 1 0; do losetup -d /dev/loop$i; done
    root# cp ~user/crypto-backup /backup-media
    This will make crypto-backup immune to copies (see questions further above for why). crypto-backup needs to be at least the same size as .crypto, of course.

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